Glossary of Terms

4R's: our systematic, step-by-step approach to restoring pain-free movement and improving mobility that includes the following 4 steps:

  1. Relax

  2. Reset

  3. Restore

  4. Reprogram

ABCs: the ABCs of Precision Movement are technique principles applied to every exercise taught and include:

  1. Alignment - if no specific alignment is outlined, neutral or working toward neutral alignment is the default
  2. Breathing - if no specific breathing pattern is outlined, relaxed, natural breathing is the default
  3. Control - if no specific movement tempo is outlined, the movement is to be performed slowly without using any momentum 

Active Self-Myofascial Release (ASMR): a key technique used in the Relax stage, ASMR techniques involve self-massage using the hands or tools combined with activation of the antagonistic (opposing) muscle groups being massaged; activating the antagonists helps relax the muscles being massaged via reciprocal inhibition increasing effectiveness of tissue mobilization 

Controlled Articular Rotation (CAR): a term coined by Dr. Andreo Spina, a CAR technique involves movement of a joint through it's full ROM including axial rotation

Closed Chain Movement: a movement where the distal limb is stationary and the body moves e.g. squats, pushups, chinups

Open Chain Movement: a movement where the proximal limb moves and the body is stationary e.g. leg extensions, bench press, lat pulldowns

Dissociation (DIS): used often in the Reset stage, Dissociation techniques are used for muscular activation and to break habitual, ingrained M/APs, which unlocks new movement possibilities

End Range Expansion (ERE): used in the Restore stage, ERE techniques are used to improve end range of motion; Level 1 ERE techniques involve activation of the synergistic and antagonistic muscles at the targeted end ROM; Level 2 ERE techniques add activation of rotational muscle groups at the targeted end ROM

Functional Integration (FI): used in the Reprogram stage, FI techniques have a high-degree of transfer of improvements made in muscle activation, ROM, endurance and strength to movements found in sport, the gym and everyday life; include the fundamental movement patterns and transitions between different positions and movements

Fundamental Movement Patterns (FMP): compound (multi-joint) movements found in life and sport, which include the squat, lunge, hinge, push, pull, twist and locomotion (crawling, walking, running)

Movement and/or Activation Pattern (M/AP): a movement pattern is the description of what is seen e.g. hip flexion, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion are the joint movements involved in a squat; an activation pattern is the description of what muscles are active and cannot always be seen e.g. squeezing the glutes when doing a squat

Multi-Joint Muscle: many muscles cross 2 or more joints e.g. the rectus femoris, which crosses and acts on both the hip (flexion) and knee (extension); working multi-joint muscles comprehensively requires consideration of the position of all of the joints it acts upon

Neutral Alignment: refers to the position of a joint in the anatomical position

Planes of Motion: refers to the 3 different axes (x, y, z) that we can move in - sagittal (lifting your leg when walking), frontal (lifting arms out to the sides) and transverse (turning your head around to look behind you); movement can occur in any 1 or combination of planes